The current landscape of microRNAs (miRNAs) in bacterial pneumonia: opportunities and challenges

Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2022 Aug 19;27(1):70. doi: 10.1186/s11658-022-00368-y.


MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which were initially discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans, can regulate gene expression by recognizing cognate sequences and interfering with the transcriptional or translational machinery. The application of bioinformatics tools for structural analysis and target prediction has largely driven the investigation of certain miRNAs. Notably, it has been found that certain miRNAs which are widely involved in the inflammatory response and immune regulation are closely associated with the occurrence, development, and outcome of bacterial pneumonia. It has been shown that certain miRNA techniques can be used to identify related targets and explore associated signal transduction pathways. This enhances the understanding of bacterial pneumonia, notably for "refractory" or drug-resistant bacterial pneumonia. Although these miRNA-based methods may provide a basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease, they still face various challenges, such as low sensitivity, poor specificity, low silencing efficiency, off-target effects, and toxic reactions. The opportunities and challenges of these methods have been completely reviewed, notably in bacterial pneumonia. With the continuous improvement of the current technology, the miRNA-based methods may surmount the aforementioned limitations, providing promising support for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of "refractory" or drug-resistant bacterial pneumonia.

Keywords: Bacterial pneumonia; Host–pathogen; Off-target effect; Sensitivity; Specificity; miRNA.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics
  • Computational Biology / methods
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs* / metabolism
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial* / diagnosis
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial* / genetics


  • MicroRNAs