Antitumor activity of grifolan NMF-5N, a beta-1,3-glucan obtained from mycelia of Grifola frondosa, was examined. Grifolan NMF-5N showed antitumor activities in allogeneic and syngeneic murine tumor systems. In the allogeneic tumor system, a potent antitumor activity over 95% was observed against the solid form of sarcoma 180 when grifolan NMF-5N was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 25-200 micrograms/mouse daily for 10 successive days. In the syngeneic tumor systems, significant antitumor activities were observed against Meth A fibrosarcoma and MM 46 carcinoma by injection at 100 micrograms/mouse daily for 5 successive days, especially i.p. injection at day 7-11, when the tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) on day 0. Moreover, when grifolan NMF-5N was injected i.p. every other week, significant antitumor activity was also observed. In addition, a single treatment with grifolan NMF-5N at 500 micrograms/mouse showed antitumor activities. Grifolan NMF-5N exhibited antitumor activities against these two syngeneic tumors by intraveneous (i.v.) injection. However, a marked inhibitory activity was observed by intratumorous (i.t.) injection against Meth A fibrosarcoma but not against MM46 carcinoma. These results suggest that antitumor activities of grifolan NMF-5N in murine syngeneic tumor systems depend on not only dosage but also injection routes and timing.