Precision Medicine in Therapy of Non-solid Cancer

Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2022 Aug 22. doi: 10.1007/164_2022_608. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The development and approval of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib in 2001 has heralded the advance of directed therapy options. Today, an armamentarium of targeted therapeutics is available and enables the use of precision medicine in non-solid cancer. Precision medicine is guided by the detection of tumor-specific and targetable characteristics. These include pathogenic fusions and/or mutations, dependency on specific signaling pathways, and the expression of certain cell surface markers. Within the first part, we review approved targeted therapies for the compound classes of small molecule inhibitors, antibody-based therapies and cellular therapies. Particular consideration is given to the underlying pathobiology and the respective mechanism of action. The second part emphasizes on how biomarkers, whether they are of diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive relevance, are indispensable tools to guide therapy choice and management in precision medicine. Finally, the examples of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia illustrate how integration of these biomarkers helps to tailor therapy.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Hematooncology; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Precision medicine; Predictive markers; Targeted therapy.