With the increase in stroke incidence, it has become an important disease threatening human life and health. Some stroke survivors have different degrees of mood and movement disorders in the later stages, such as post-stroke anxiety (PSA) and post-stroke depression (PSD), which seriously endanger the quality of life of patients and their families. The pathogenesis of PSA remains incompletely clear. Current research interest mainly focuses on the dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenergic (HPA) axis, neurotransmitter disorders, neuronal excitability changes, cytokine levels imbalance, stroke lesion site and psychophysiology. This article summarizes the research progress on the pathogenesis of PSA in recent years.