Prognostic value of right ventricular remodelling in patients undergoing concomitant aortic and mitral valve surgery

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2022 Aug 22;jeac162. doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jeac162. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Aims: Long-term risk stratification and surgical timing remain suboptimal in concomitant aortic and mitral (double) valve surgery. This study sought to examine the predictors, changes, and prognostic implications of right ventricular (RV) remodelling in patients undergoing double-valve surgery.

Methods and results: In 152 patients undergoing double-valve surgery, four RV remodelling patterns were characterized using transthoracic echocardiography: normal RV size and systolic function (Pattern 1); dilated RV (tricuspid annulus diameter >35 mm) with normal systolic function (Pattern 2); normal RV size with systolic dysfunction (percentage RV fractional area change <35%; Pattern 3); and dilated RV with systolic dysfunction (Pattern 4). The primary endpoint was the composite of heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Patterns 1, 2, 3, and 4 RV remodelling were present in 41, 20, 23, and 16% of patients, respectively. Patients with Stage 4 RV remodelling had worse renal function, higher EuroSCORE II, and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction. During a 3.7-year median follow up, 45 adverse events occurred. Patterns 3 and 4 RV remodelling were associated with significantly higher adverse event rates compared with Pattern 1 (37 and 75% vs. 11%, P < 0.01) and had incremental prognostic value when added to clinical parameters and EuroSCORE II (χ2 increased from 30 to 66, P < 0.01). At 1 year after surgery (n = 100), Patterns 3 and 4 RV remodelling had a higher risk of adverse events compared with Pattern 1.

Conclusion: Right ventricular remodelling was strongly related to adverse outcomes and deserves consideration as part of the risk and decision-making algorithms in double-valve surgery.

Keywords: adverse outcome; concomitant aortic and mitral valve surgery; right ventricular function; right ventricular remodelling.