Objective: In patients with moderate to severe albuminuric kidney disease, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of kidney disease progression. These post hoc analyses assess the effects of dapagliflozin on kidney function decline in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), focusing on populations with low kidney risk.
Research design and methods: In the Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58 (DECLARE-TIMI 58) trial, patients with T2D at high cardiovascular risk were randomly assigned to dapagliflozin versus placebo. Outcomes were analyzed by treatment arms, overall, and by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) risk categories. The prespecified kidney-specific composite outcome was a sustained decline ≥40% in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, end-stage kidney disease, and kidney-related death. Other outcomes included incidence of categorical eGFR decline of different thresholds and chronic (6 month to 4 year) or total (baseline to 4 year) eGFR slopes.
Results: Most participants were in the low-moderate KDIGO risk categories (n = 15,201 [90.3%]). The hazard for the kidney-specific composite outcome was lower with dapagliflozin across all KDIGO risk categories (P-interaction = 0.97), including those at low risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.77). Risks for categorical eGFR reductions (≥57% [in those with baseline eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2], ≥50%, ≥40%, and ≥30%) were lower with dapagliflozin (HRs 0.52, 0.57, 0.55, and 0.70, respectively; P < 0.05). Slopes of eGFR decline favored dapagliflozin across KDIGO risk categories, including the low KDIGO risk (between-arm differences of 0.87 [chronic] and 0.55 [total] mL/min/1.73 m2/year; P < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Dapagliflozin mitigated kidney function decline in patients with T2D at high cardiovascular risk, including those with low KDIGO risk, suggesting a role of dapagliflozin in the early prevention of diabetic kidney disease.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01730534.
© 2022 by the American Diabetes Association.