Cancer vaccines: the next immunotherapy frontier

Nat Cancer. 2022 Aug;3(8):911-926. doi: 10.1038/s43018-022-00418-6. Epub 2022 Aug 23.


After several decades, therapeutic cancer vaccines now show signs of efficacy and potential to help patients resistant to other standard-of-care immunotherapies, but they have yet to realize their full potential and expand the oncologic armamentarium. Here, we classify cancer vaccines by what is known of the included antigens, which tumors express those antigens and where the antigens colocalize with antigen-presenting cells, thus delineating predefined vaccines (shared or personalized) and anonymous vaccines (ex vivo or in situ). To expedite clinical development, we highlight the need for accurate immune monitoring of early trials to acknowledge failures and advance the most promising vaccines.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antigen-Presenting Cells
  • Cancer Vaccines* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Immunotherapy / adverse effects
  • Neoplasms* / prevention & control
  • Neoplasms* / therapy


  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Immunologic Factors