Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

Clin Exp Med. 2022 Aug 24. doi: 10.1007/s10238-022-00874-5. Online ahead of print.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary malignancy of the liver, is a threat to the health of all humans as a prevalent malignancy and is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It is difficult to diagnose because symptoms do not show up until late in the disease, and patients often progress to the point where transplantation, resection, or even local treatment cannot be performed. The progression of HCC is regulated by the immune system, and immunotherapy enables the body's immune system's defenses to target liver cancer cells; therefore, immunotherapy has brought a new hope for the treatment of HCC. Currently, the main types of immunotherapies for liver cancer are: immune checkpoint inhibitors, liver cancer vaccines and cellular therapies. In this review, the progress of immunotherapy for the treatment of HCC is summarized.

Keywords: CAR-T; HCC; ICIs; Immunotherapy; Vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review