The CO-MIND Study: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management in Daily Practice and Its Implications for Improved Outcomes According to GOLD 2019 Perspective

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2022 Aug 18:17:1883-1895. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S372439. eCollection 2022.


Purpose: GOLD 2019 proposed a novel treatment decision tool for follow-up based on the predominant trait (exacerbation or dyspnea) of patients, alongside treatment escalation and de-escalation strategies. This study was designed to provide an up-to-date snapshot of patient and disease characteristics, treatment pathways, and healthcare resource use (HRU) in COPD in real life, and comprehensively examine patients considering GOLD 2019 recommendations.

Patients and methods: This mixed design, observational, multicenter (14 pulmonology clinics) study included all patients with a documented COPD diagnosis (excluding asthma-COPD overlap [ACO]) for ≥12 months, aged ≥40 years at diagnosis who had a COPD-related hospital visit, spirometry test and blood eosinophil count (BEC) measurement under stable conditions within the 12 months before enrollment between February and December 2020. Data were collected cross-sectionally from patients and retrospectively from hospital medical records.

Results: This study included 522 patients (GOLD group A: 17.2%, B: 46.4%, C: 3.3%, D: 33.1%), of whom 79.5% were highly symptomatic and 36.2% had high risk of exacerbation. Exacerbations (n = 832; 46.6% moderate, 25.5% severe) were experienced by 57.5% of patients in the previous 12 months. Inter-rater agreement between investigators and patients regarding the reason for visit was low (κ coefficient: 0.338, p = 0.001). Inhaled treatment was modified in 88 patients at index, mainly due to symptomatic state (31.8%) and exacerbations (27.3%); treatment was escalated (57.9%, mainly switched to LABA+LAMA+ICS), inhaler device and/or active ingredient was changed (36.4%) or treatment was de-escalated (5.7%). 27% had ≥1 hospital overnight stay over 12 months. Emergency department visits and days with limitation of daily activities were higher in group D (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Despite being on-treatment, many patients with COPD experience persistent symptoms and exacerbations requiring hospital-related HRU. A treatable trait approach and holistic disease management may improve outcomes by deciding the right treatment for the right patient at the right time.

Keywords: COPD; COPD treatment; GOLD; eosinophilia; exacerbation.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Disease Progression
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Humans
  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / drug therapy
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Muscarinic Antagonists