Assessment of depth of penetration and antibiofilm properties of Boswellia sacra compared with calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament (in vitro study)

Aust Endod J. 2023 Aug;49(2):295-301. doi: 10.1111/aej.12675. Epub 2022 Aug 25.


Successful endodontic treatment requires advanced materials to eliminate biofilm This study aims to assess the penetration depth and the effectiveness of Boswellia sacra as a novel intracanal medicament compared with calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. 60 single-rooted teeth were decoronated, prepared and sterilised. Fifty teeth were contaminated with a culture of E. faecalis (ATCC 19433) for 21 days. Two teeth were used to confirm the biofilm using scanning electron microscope. For colony-forming unit (CFU), 40 samples were divided into one control group (calcium hydroxide) and the other experimental group (B. sacra). Each group was divided into two subgroups to be tested at 3 and 7 days. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of B. sacra was determined, and the B. sacra's ethanolic extract medicament was prepared. Eight discs divided into groups similar to CFU were used to evaluate live/dead bacteria using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Ten teeth were selected for penetration depth using CLSM. The intracanal medicaments were mixed with 0.1% rhodamine B. were inserted into the root canals 0.2 slices were dissected and viewed under CLSM. The MIC of B. sacra was 1.25 mg/ml. The CFU evaluation proved that B. sacra are more effective than calcium hydroxide in the 3 days groups. However, it was statistically insignificant compared with calcium hydroxide after 7 days. The depth of penetration of B. sacra exceeds that of calcium hydroxide. B. sacra is an effective intracanal medicament.

Keywords: Boswellia sacra; Enterococcus faecalis; biofilm; calcium hydroxide; confocal laser scan microscope; depth of penetration; intracanal medicament.

MeSH terms

  • Biofilms
  • Boswellia*
  • Calcium Hydroxide* / pharmacology
  • Dental Pulp Cavity / microbiology
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Research Design
  • Root Canal Irrigants / pharmacology


  • Calcium Hydroxide
  • Root Canal Irrigants