Association between Influenza and COVID-19 Viruses and the Risk of Atherosclerosis: Meta-Analysis Study and Systematic Review

Adv Respir Med. 2022 Aug 12;90(4):338-348. doi: 10.3390/arm90040043.


There is a lot of evidence to suggest that patients infected with the COVID-19 and influenza viruses are at risk of atherosclerosis. Additionally, there are heterogeneous studies on the risk of arthrosclerosis in patients infected with the influenza and COVID-19 viruses. We conducted a case−control and cross-sectional study and examined the association between the risk of atherosclerosis, and influenza virus (IV-A and IV-B) and COVID-19 infections in this study. We searched for keywords such as influenza virus, COVID-19 and atherosclerosis in English and Persian in well-known databases such as PubMed, SID, Magiran and Google Scholar. In this study, we analyzed the information using a meta-analysis, the random effect model, the I2 index and STAT (version 11.2). The results from the analysis of ten studies on influenza virus and nine studies on COVID-19 reviewed individually (totaling 6428 samples for influenza virus infections and 10,785 samples for COVID-19 infections) demonstrated a risk of arthrosclerosis in patients with influenza and COVID-19 infections, with an OR (odds ratio) = 0.45 ((95% CI): 0.25 to 0.64) and an OR (odds ratio) = 1.04 ((95% CI): 0.82 to 1.26), respectively. The present study provides new insights into the risk of atherosclerosis in patients infected with the COVID-19 and influenza viruses. Therefore, it seems necessary to consider different strategies for managing and eradicating viral infections among individuals.

Keywords: 2019-nCOV; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; atherosclerosis; influenza virus; meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Atherosclerosis* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Influenza, Human* / complications
  • Influenza, Human* / epidemiology
  • SARS-CoV-2

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.