Background: Sinus pericranii is a rare cranial venous malformation resulting in a subcutaneous mass due to abnormal communication between intracranial and subperiosteal/interperiosteal veins. To date, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of sinus pericranii associated with syntelencephaly, a subtype of lobar holoprosencephaly. We herein report a case of sinus pericranii associated with syntelencephaly. This report can provide us better understanding of the etiology of sinus pericranii, the potential risks, and the treatment options for these patients.
Case presentation: A 2-year-4-month old female patient who received the diagnosis of syntelencephaly as a neonate presented with a subcutaneous mass in the parietal region. The mass was soft, nonpulsatile, 3 × 2 cm in size, and showed enlargement in the lying position. Color cranial Doppler ultrasound, head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebral angiography revealed a dilated vessel passing through the parietal bone and forming a communication between the superior sagittal sinus and scalp veins. Based on these findings, sinus pericranii was diagnosed. The head MRI also showed coronal craniosynostosis, a tight posterior fossa. At age 2 years and 7 months, the patient underwent a transection of the sinus pericranii and the mass resolved without any complications or recurrences for more than 2.5 years to date.
Conclusion: Sinus pericranii is a rare cranial and venous malformation sometimes accompanied by brain malformations or craniosynostosis that may become more apparent as the brain and skull develop. Since this condition can be complicated by intracranial hemorrhage and sinus thrombosis, early detection is necessary to determine the treatment options. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of this condition if they observe a soft cranial mass that appears to decrease in size in the sitting position and bulge in the lying position.
Keywords: Case report; Craniosynostosis; Holoprosencephaly; Sinus pericranii; Syntelencephaly; Tight posterior fossa.
© 2022. The Author(s).