Despite the intramuscular route being the most used vaccination strategy against SARS-CoV-2, the intradermal route has been studied around the globe as a strong candidate for immunization against SARS-CoV-2. Adjuvants have shown to be essential vaccine components that are capable of driving robust immune responses and increasing the vaccination efficacy. In this work, our group aimed to develop a vaccination strategy for SARS-CoV-2 using a trimeric spike protein, by testing the best route with formulations containing the adjuvants AddaS03, CpG, MPL, Alum, or a combination of two of them. Our results showed that formulations that were made with AddaS03 or CpG alone or AddaS03 combined with CpG were able to induce high levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a; high titers of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 original strain; and also induced high hypersensitivity during the challenge with Spike protein and a high level of IFN-γ producing CD4+ T-cells in mice. Altogether, those data indicate that AddaS03, CpG, or both combined may be used as adjuvants in vaccines for COVID-19.
Keywords: AddaS03; Alum; CpG; MPL; SARS-CoV-2; adjuvants; intradermal route; intramuscular route; spike protein; vaccine.