Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiological, Clinical, and Imaging Features

Curr Cardiol Rev. 2023;19(2):e250822208003. doi: 10.2174/1573403X18666220825153725.


Background: A systematic review was performed to deliver a critical view of clinical and research practice on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in Saudi Arabia. Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were searched for original articles reporting clinical and/or imaging findings among HCM patients in Saudi Arabia. Of 559 records identified, 3 studies and 1 abstract were included, involving 169 patients.

Methods: The mean age ranged between 40and 56 years, up to 93.3% were males. A family history of HCM was reported in one study (5%), and sudden cardiac death was investigated in two studies (9% and 13%). Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom (60-68.7%) reported, followed by chest pain (12.5%-73.3%).

Results: Regarding complications, atrial fibrillation was reported among 0-25% of the patients, mitral regurgitations among 13.3-50%, and ventricular tachycardia among 5-12.5%. Imaging parameters were inadequately documented and suggested a high prevalence of left atrial enlargement, SVI + RV5 > 35 mm, blocks, and asymmetric septal hypertrophy.

Conclusion: The ejection fraction was reported by two studies with a mean±SD of 68±13% and 77.2±8.07%. The researchers stress the paucity, low quality, and disparity in time of original studies about HCM in Saudi Arabia and recommend conducting national multicenter studies, with appropriate design, notably using screening-based recruitment methods.

Keywords: CVDs; Hypertrophic; cardiomyopathy; dyspnea; epidemiological; imaging features.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / complications
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / epidemiology
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial* / complications
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Saudi Arabia / epidemiology
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular*