Maintenance of small molecule redox homeostasis in mitochondria

FEBS Lett. 2023 Jan;597(2):205-223. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.14485. Epub 2022 Sep 4.


Compartmentalisation of eukaryotic cells enables fundamental otherwise often incompatible cellular processes. Establishment and maintenance of distinct compartments in the cell relies not only on proteins, lipids and metabolites but also on small redox molecules. In particular, small redox molecules such as glutathione, NAD(P)H and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) cooperate with protein partners in dedicated machineries to establish specific subcellular redox compartments with conditions that enable oxidative protein folding and redox signalling. Dysregulated redox homeostasis has been directly linked with a number of diseases including cancer, neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, metabolic diseases and ageing. In this review, we will summarise mechanisms regulating establishment and maintenance of redox homeostasis in the mitochondrial subcompartments of mammalian cells.

Keywords: compartmentalisation; glutathione; hydrogen peroxide; mitochondria.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Glutathione* / metabolism
  • Homeostasis / physiology
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Mammals / metabolism
  • Mitochondria* / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction


  • Glutathione
  • Hydrogen Peroxide