In late February 2021, a prothrombotic syndrome was encountered for the first time in some of the recipients of ChAdOx1 CoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca, University of Oxford, and Serum Institute of India). Since the hallmark of this syndrome is the development of thrombocytopenia and/or thrombosis between 4 and 42 days after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, it was named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Other names include "vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia" and "thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome" by the Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). VITT appears similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in that "platelet activating" autoantibodies are produced in both these conditions due to prior exposure of COVID-19 vaccine and heparin respectively, in turn causing thrombotic complications and consumptive thrombocytopenia. In this article, recent advances in the understanding of pathobiology, clinical features, investigative work-up, and management of VITT are reviewed.
Keywords: COVID-19; VITT; cerebral venous thrombosis.
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.