Background: Data are limited on the ability of dipyridamole to additionally inhibit platelet function/reactivity in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) patients on aspirin.
Aims: To assess inhibition of platelet function/reactivity and platelet activation with dipyridamole in CVD.
Methods: This prospective, observational study assessed TIA/ischaemic stroke patients before (baseline; N = 60), at 14 ±7 days (14d, N = 39) and ≥ 90 days (90d, N = 31) after adding dipyridamole to aspirin. Platelet function/reactivity at high shear stress (PFA-100® C-ADP) and low shear stress (VerifyNow® P2Y12 and Multiplate® ADP assays), and platelet activation status (% expression of CD62P, CD63 and leucocyte-platelet complexes on whole blood flow cytometry) were quantified. 'Dipyridamole-high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR)' was defined as failure to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation +/- adhesion compared with the patient's baseline on aspirin monotherapy by more than twice the coefficient-of-variation of the assay after adding dipyridamole to aspirin.
Results: Dipyridamole-HTPR was identified in 71.4-75% of patients on PFA-100 C-ADP, 83.9-86.8% of patients on VerifyNow P2Y12, and 81.5-83.3% of patients on Multiplate ADP assays. There were no changes in CD62P/CD63 expression (P ≥ 0.18), or consistent changes in leucocyte-platelet complexes in CVD patients overall at 14d or 90d vs. baseline after commencing dipyridamole. Monocyte-platelet complexes increased in the patient subgroup with dipyridamole-HTPR at 14d and 90d on PFA-100, and at 14d on VerifyNow (P ≤ 0.04), but not in those without dipyridamole-HTPR.
Discussion: Additional antiplatelet effects of dipyridamole are detectable under high and low shear stress conditions with user-friendly platelet function/reactivity tests ex vivo. Increasing circulating monocyte-platelet complexes over time are associated with dipyridamole-HTPR.
Keywords: Antiplatelet therapy; Dipyridamole-high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR); Flow cytometry; Ischaemic stroke; Platelet function/reactivity; Shear stress; TIA.
Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.