Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Percutaneous Third-Generation Double First Metatarsal Osteotomy Combined With Closing-Wedge Proximal Phalangeal Osteotomy for Moderate and Severe Hallux Valgus

Foot Ankle Int. 2022 Nov;43(11):1438-1449. doi: 10.1177/10711007221118568. Epub 2022 Aug 29.


Background: The treatment for severe hallux valgus deformity presents a challenge with high risk of complications. Third generation MIS techniques have increased their publications in recent years. The aim was to compare clinical and radiologic outcomes in moderate and severe cases and report minor and major complications.

Methods: Retrospective series of cases with prospective data collection of 156 consecutive feet that underwent percutaneous double first metatarsal osteotomy (PEDO) and first phalanx osteotomy between 2008 and 2019 for moderate (hallux valgus angle [HVA] between ≥20 and <40 degrees and/or intermetatarsal angle [IMA] <16 degrees) and severe (HVA ≥40 degrees and/or IMA ≥16 degrees) hallux valgus deformities. Primary outcomes included radiographic and clinical parameters. Secondary outcomes included minor and major complications.

Results: A total of 156 procedures were performed in 128 patients. Mean age was 54.3 years (SD 14.3) (range, 19-82 years), median follow-up was 22.6 months (range, 12-96 months). Radiographic changes pre- to postoperation were as follows: HVA changed from 38.2 (SD 10.1) degrees to 11.2 (SD 8.3) degrees (P < .001), IMA from 14.7 (SD 3.2) degrees to 7.9 (SD 3.7) degrees (P < .001), and distal articular metatarsal angle from 19.7 (SD 6.3) degrees to 8.8 (SD 5.7) degrees (P < .001) after PEDO technique. Clinical changes pre- to postoperation were as follows: American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale scores improved from 47.3 (SD 16.5) to 87 (SD 11.6) (P < .001) and visual analog scale scores from 5 (2.7) to 0.9 (1.3) (P < .001). The satisfaction rate was 97% in the total sample. Recurrence rate (HVA ≥20 degrees) was 7.7%. Hallux varus (HVA <0 degrees) occurred in 5.8%, acute osteomyelitis in 1.3%, partial avascular necrosis in 0.6%, screw removal in 0.6%, and reoperation in 1.9%. No nonunion was observed.

Conclusion: Clinical and radiographic parameters improved significantly, with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up in moderate and severe hallux valgus. Long experience in percutaneous surgery and specific instruments are needed for this technique. Recurrence was linked to preoperative HVA ≥40 degrees and postoperative tibial sesamoid position; Hallux varus was linked to lateral soft tissue release.

Level of evidence: Level IV, case series.

Keywords: Akin osteotomy; complications; double osteotomy; first metatarsal; fixation; hallux valgus; hallux varus; minimally invasive surgery; percutaneous; recurrence.

MeSH terms

  • Bunion*
  • Hallux Valgus* / diagnostic imaging
  • Hallux Valgus* / surgery
  • Hallux Varus*
  • Humans
  • Metatarsal Bones* / diagnostic imaging
  • Metatarsal Bones* / surgery
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteotomy / methods
  • Radiography
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome