Factors that Predict HPV Vaccination Behavior Among Young Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men in the Greater Philadelphia Region

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2023 Oct;10(5):2167-2174. doi: 10.1007/s40615-022-01396-2. Epub 2022 Aug 29.


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the USA. HPV is acknowledged as one of the leading causes of anal cancer, with an increased risk in men who have sex with men (MSM), when compared to age-matched heterosexual men. This study highlights the various factors that influence and impede HPV vaccination uptake among a multiracial cohort of young-MSM (YMSM). A total of 444 participants aged 18 to 27 in the Greater Philadelphia region completed an online survey. Approximately 75.79% (n = 335) of participants did not receive at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Having a healthcare provider recommendation (OR = 25.54, 95% CI: 25.54-85.42, p < 0.001) and a one unit increase in experiences of adverse effects of stigma and homophobia (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11, p = 0.044) were associated with a greater likelihood of receiving the HPV vaccine uptake. Having a greater number of sexual partners (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75-0.97, p = 0.014) and having had condomless anal sex in the past 6 months (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.58, p < 0.001) were associated with a lower odds of HPV vaccine uptake. In conclusion, healthcare provider-focused interventions and educational programs are needed to increase awareness and uptake of the HPV vaccine to mitigate the risks associated with sexual behaviors among this population.

Keywords: Human papillomavirus; Sexually transmitted infections.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Human Papillomavirus Viruses
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Papillomavirus Infections* / prevention & control
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Philadelphia
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities*
  • Vaccination


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines