RNA-seq reveals transcriptional differences in anthocyanin and vitamin biosynthetic pathways between black and white rice

Gene. 2022 Nov 30;844:146845. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2022.146845. Epub 2022 Aug 28.


Anthocyanins and vitamins in black rice are the micronutrients vital to human health, both of which predominantly accumulate in the bran fraction. Some studies have demonstrated that black rice contains more vitamins compared with common white rice, indicating potential association between anthocyanin and vitamin accumulation. In this study, transcriptomes of pericarps collected from 27 black rice accessions and 49 white rice accessions at 10 days after flowering (DAF) were sequenced and analyzed. We identified 830 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 58 transcription factors (TFs) between black and white rice. Among 58 differentially expressed transcription factors, OsTTG1 was confirmed to be the one and only WD40 repeat protein regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the pericarp. Moreover, we identified 53 differentially expressed synthetic-related genes among 42 main synthesis enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of seven vitamins including β-carotene, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B7, vitamin B9 and vitamin E. Collectively, our results provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanism of biosynthesis of anthocyanins and vitamins and the potential effect of anthocyanin biosynthesis on vitamin biosynthesis in black rice.

Keywords: Micronutrient; Oryza sativa; OsTTG1; RNA-seq; Transcription factor.

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins
  • Biosynthetic Pathways / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Humans
  • Oryza* / metabolism
  • RNA-Seq
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Vitamins / genetics


  • Anthocyanins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Vitamins