Imaging and Endoscopic Diagnosis of Lung Diseases in Small Animals. A Review

Top Companion Anim Med. 2022 Nov-Dec;51:100701. doi: 10.1016/j.tcam.2022.100701. Epub 2022 Aug 28.


Diagnostic imaging plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, and endoscopy are important tools for achieving a diagnosis. The choice of diagnostic procedure varies according to the patient, the suspected diagnosis and the risk/benefit ratio. Culture, cytology and histology are nearly always necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Several biopsy sampling techniques are described. Surgical biopsies are the gold standard for the diagnosis of bronchiolitis or interstitial lung diseases but often not performed due to the high risk. In humans, the introduction of transbronchial cryobiopsies has led to excellent results in the study of interstitial lung diseases.

Keywords: computed tomography; endoscopy; lung biopsy; lung diseases; radiography; ultrasound.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biopsy / veterinary
  • Bronchoscopy* / methods
  • Bronchoscopy* / veterinary
  • Endoscopy / veterinary
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial* / diagnosis
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial* / pathology
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial* / veterinary
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary