Background and objectives: Chronic periodontitis can lead to alveolar bone resorption and eventually tooth loss. Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are appropriate bone regeneration seed cells. To track the survival, migration, and differentiation of the transplanted SHED, we used super paramagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) Molday ION Rhodamine-B (MIRB) to label and monitor the transplanted cells while repairing periodontal bone defects.
Methods and results: We determined an appropriate dose of MIRB for labeling SHED by examining the growth and osteogenic differentiation of labeled SHED. Finally, SHED was labeled with 25 μg Fe/ml MIRB before being transplanted into rats. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to track SHED survival and migration in vivo due to a low-intensity signal artifact caused by MIRB. HE and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that both MIRB-labeled and unlabeled SHED could promote periodontal bone regeneration. The colocalization of hNUC and MIRB demonstrated that SHED transplanted into rats could survive in vivo. Furthermore, some MIRB-positive cells expressed the osteoblast and osteocyte markers OCN and DMP1, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that SHED could secrete protein factors, such as IGF-1, OCN, ALP, IL-4, VEGF, and bFGF, which promote bone regeneration. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the transplanted SHED was surrounded by a large number of host-derived Runx2- and Col II-positive cells that played important roles in the bone healing process.
Conclusions: SHED could promote periodontal bone regeneration in rats, and the survival of SHED could be tracked in vivo by labeling them with MIRB. SHED are likely to promote bone healing through both direct differentiation and paracrine mechanisms.
Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; Periodontal bone defect; Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED); Transplanted cells tracking.