Risk factors for early-onset exfoliation syndrome

Sci Rep. 2022 Aug 30;12(1):14728. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-18738-z.


Although exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related, late-onset disease, early-onset XFS has been reported, and its associated factors remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the clinical features and risk factors of early-onset XFS. The participants were divided into two groups according to age at the time of XFS diagnosis: early-onset (< 60 years) or late-onset (≥ 70 years) group. Among the 302 eyes of 240 patients with XFS, the early-onset group included 41 eyes (14%) of 33 patients, and the late-onset group included 163 eyes (54%) of 126 patients; the mean age was 54.8 ± 5.0 and 76.6 ± 4.9 years, respectively (p < 0.001). All eight cases diagnosed with XFS at the earliest age, ranging from 36 to 52 years, underwent trabeculectomy before the diagnosis of XFS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a history of trabeculectomy (odds ratio [OR] = 11.435, p < 0.001), presence of iridectomy (OR = 11.113, p < 0.001), and longer axial length (OR = 2.311, p = 0.003) were significantly associated with the development of early-onset XFS. Collectively, patients with early-onset XFS were more likely to have undergone trabeculectomy and have more axial myopia compared with those with late-onset XFS. These findings suggest that surgical trauma compromising the blood-aqueous barrier may trigger early manifestation of XFS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Exfoliation Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Exfoliation Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Exfoliation Syndrome* / etiology
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Sclera
  • Trabeculectomy* / adverse effects