Novel and exciting avenues allow generating dendritic cells (DC) by reprogramming of somatic cells. DC are obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), referred to as ipDC, and by direct reprogramming of cells toward DC, referred to as induced DC (iDC). iPS cells represent pluripotent stem cells generated by reprogramming of somatic cells and can differentiate into all cell types of the body, including DC. This makes iPS cells and ipDC derived thereof useful for studying various DC subsets, acquiring high cell numbers for research and clinical use, or applying genome editing to generate DC with wanted properties. Thereby, ipDC overcome limitations in specific DC subsets, which are only found in low abundance in blood or lymphoid organs. iDC are generated by direct reprogramming of somatic cells with a specific set of transcription factors and offer an avenue to obtain DC without a pluripotent cell intermediate. ipDC and iDC retain patient and disease-specific mutations and this opens new perspectives for studying DC in disease. This review summarizes the current techniques used to generate ipDC and iDC, and the types and functionality of the DC generated.
Keywords: DC; Dendritic cells; iPS cells; induced pluripotent stem cells; reprogramming.
© 2022 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.