Modulation of gut microbiota and markers of metabolic syndrome in mice on cholesterol and fat enriched diet by butterfly pea flower kombucha

Curr Res Food Sci. 2022 Aug 18;5:1251-1265. doi: 10.1016/j.crfs.2022.08.005. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Clitoria ternatea, with an alternative name, Butterfly pea, is increasingly being explored for medical purposes and the development of a wide range of processed products. This study aimed to incorporate Butterfly pea into an innovative probiotic drink through a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY) fermentation and to evaluate the biological activity. The benefits of the drink, referred to as butterfly pea flower kombucha (KBPF) was determined in vitro and in metabolically disorder mice that receive a diet rich in cholesterol and fat (CFED). Forty white male were categorized into four groups, i.e., A = Control/Normal Diet; B = CFED alone; C = CFED + KBPF 65 mg/kg BW (Body Weight); D = CFED + KBPF 130 mg/kg BW, and then sacrificed after 6 weeks of intervention. Seventy-nine secondary metabolite compounds were successfully identified in KBPF using LC-HRMS. In vitro studies showed the potential activity of KBPF in inhibiting not only ABTS, but also lipid (lipase) and carbohydrate (α-amylase, α-glucosidase) hydrolyzing enzymes to levels similar to acarbose control at 50-250 μg/mL. In the in vivo study, the administration of KBPF (130 mg/kg BW) significantly alleviated metabolic disorders caused by high-fat diet. Specifically, lipid profile (HDL, LDL, TC, TG), blood glucose, markers of oxidative stress (SOD liver), metabolic enzymes (lipase, amylase), and markers of inflammation (PGC-1α, TNF-α, and IL-10) were in most cases restored to normal values. Additionally, the gut microbiota community analysis showed that KBPF has a positive effect (p = 0.01) on both the Bacteroidetes phylum and the Firmicutes phylum. The new KBPF drink is a promising therapeutic functional food for preventing metabolic diseases.

Keywords: Clitoria ternatea; Kombucha; Lipid profile; Metabolic syndrome; Nutraceuticals.