Objectives: Cancer diseases have been linked to a huge number of causes that led to deaths in this century along with cardiovascular and lung diseases. Most death-leading types of cancer are colon, lung, breast, and prostate cancers. Due to the remarkable properties of gold (Au) nanocarrier, they are used to deliver and improve tamoxifen (Tam) citrate activity in Caco-2 and MCF-7 cells.
Materials and methods: In this study, preparation of Au nanoparticles (NPs), zeta-potential and size, high resolution transient electron microscopy (HRTEM), high-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet-visible spectra, fluorescence microscopy, fourier infrared spectroscopy, and real-time cellular analysis xCELLigence technology were investigated.
Results: The zeta-average size of the Tam- β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-hyaluronic acid (HA)-chitosan (Chi)-Au nanocomposite is 82.02 nm with a negative zeta potential of -23.6. Furthermore, HRTEM images showed that, successful formulation of polymer shell around Au core and the Au NP shape is mostly spherical, triangle and irregular. Furthermore, the fluorescence microscope image showed proper cellular uptake of the Tam-β-CD-HA-Chi-Au nanocomposite in MCF-7 and Caco-2 cells. Additionally, Tam-β-CD-HA-Chi-Au nanocomposite significantly improved the cytotoxic activity of Tam citrate on Caco-2 cells. IC50 value of Tam reduced from 8.55 µM to 5.32 µM, after 48 h of incubation time (p value <0.00001).
Conclusion: This study showed that Tam-β-CD-HA-Chi-Au nanocomposite is a potential nanocarrier for delivering the drug to Caco-2 and MCF-7 cancer cells, since it has improved Tam citrate activity on colorectal cancer cells. After all, the developed formula showed more effect on Caco-2 than MCF-7. The prepared nanocomposite could be used to improve the cancer therapy in clinical trials.
Keywords: Chitosan gold nanoparticles; MCF-7 cell line and Caco-2 cell line; Xcelligence RTCA systems; cytotoxicity and cellular uptake; tamoxifen citrate and β-cyclodextrin.