Inflammasomes are essential components of the innate immune system and its defense against infections, whereas the dysregulation of inflammasome activation has a detrimental effect on human health. The activation of inflammasomes is subjected to tight regulation to maintain immune homeostasis, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we identify USP3 as a direct deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) for ASC, the central adapter mediating the assembly and activation of most inflammasomes. USP3 removes the K48-linked ubiquitination on ASC and strengthens its stability by blocking proteasomal degradation. Additionally, USP3 promotes inflammasome activation, and this function was confirmed in mouse models of aluminum (Alum)-induced peritonitis, F. novicida infection and flagellin-induced pneumonia in vivo. Our work unveils that USP3 functions as a key regulator of ASC ubiquitination and maintains the physiological role of ASC in mediating inflammasome activation, and we propose a new mechanism by which the ubiquitination of ASC regulates inflammasome activation.
Keywords: ASC; K48-linked ubiquitination; USP3; inflammasome; proteasomal degradation.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to CSI and USTC.