Targetable alterations in primary extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

EJHaem. 2022 May 23;3(3):688-697. doi: 10.1002/jha2.428. eCollection 2022 Aug.


Primary extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PE-DLBCL) is a heterogeneous subgroup of DLBCL. We investigated the prevalence and prognostic value of surface expression of PD-L1, PD1, and CD30, copy number of 9p24.1 (PD-L1 region), and mutations in MYD88, CD79B, CARD11, and BTK in a cohort of 116 patients, localized in the mediastinum (PMBL, n = 12), ear, nose and throat (ENT, n = 28), central nervous system (n = 29), testis (n = 7), breast (n = 4), stomach (n = 10), bone (n = 8), spleen (n = 2), and skin (n = 16). PD-L1 expression is most frequent in PMBL (92%), followed by lymphomas originating in the stomach (57%), ENT (23%), and skin (18%). PD1 was expressed at low levels in less than 13% of PE-DLBCL, while CD30 expression was found in 58% of PMBL. Mutation analysis revealed an unexpectedly high frequency of MYD88 and CD79B mutations in ENT lymphomas (46% and 50%, respectively). CARD11 mutations are rare but more frequently found in gastric lymphomas (30%), suggesting BTK resistance. Thirty-four of 113 (30%) of the lymphomas harbored both MYD88 and CD79B mutations. Lower overall and progression-free survival rates were found for cases with MYD88, CD79B, and BTK mutations. These data confirm the biologic singularity of PE-DLBCLs and provide some suggestions for targeted therapies.

Keywords: extranodal diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma; immunohistochemical analysis; mutational analysis; prognosis; targeted therapy.