Leveraging Clinical Digitized Data to Understand Temporal Characteristics and Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarctions at a Tertiary Care Medical Centre in Pakistan from 1988-2018 - Methods and Results

Glob Heart. 2022 Aug 18;17(1):58. doi: 10.5334/gh.1147. eCollection 2022.


Background and objective: Few data exist on trends in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patterns spanning recent epidemiological shifts in low middle-income countries (LMICs). To understand temporal disease patterns of AMI characteristics and outcomes between 1988-2018, we used digitized legacy clinical data at a large tertiary care centre in Pakistan.

Methods: We reviewed digital health information capture systems maintained across the Aga Khan University Hospital and obtained structured elements to create a master dataset. We included index admissions of patients >18 years that were discharged between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 2018, with a primary discharge diagnosis of AMI (using ICD-9 diagnoses). The outcome evaluated was in-hospital mortality.Clinical characteristics derived from the electronic database were validated against chart review in a random sample of cases (k 0.53-1.00).

Results: The final population consisted of 14,601 patients of which 30.6% (n = 4,470) were female, 52.4% (n = 7,651) had ST elevation MI and 47.6% (n = 6,950) had non-ST elevation MI. The median (IQR) age at presentation was 61 (52-70) years. Overall unadjusted in-hospital mortality was 10.3%. Across the time period, increasing trends were noted for the following characteristics: age, proportion of women, prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, proportion with NSTEMI (all ptrend < 0.001). In-hospital mortality rates declined significantly between 1988-1997 and 2008-2018 (13.8% to 9.2%, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The patterns of AMI have changed over the last three decades with a concomitant decline in in-hospital mortality at a tertiary care centre in Pakistan. Clinical digitized data presents a unique opportunity for gaining insights into disease patterns in LMICs.

Keywords: Electronic Health Records; Health Care Outcome Assessment; Myocardial Infarction; Quality of Health Care; Risk Factors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction* / epidemiology
  • Pakistan / epidemiology
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Tertiary Healthcare