Contextual factors in premature non-communicable disease mortality in selected African countries within the sustainable development goals framework: the implication of voice and accountability

J Public Health Afr. 2022 Jul 27;13(2):1929. doi: 10.4081/jphia.2022.1929. eCollection 2022 Jul 26.

Abstract

Sustainable Development Goal number 3, target 4 (SDG 3.4), seeks a 30% reduction in premature Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) mortality from 2015 levels by 2030. Africa United Nations (UN) Member States continue to experience increasing NCD mortality significantly, with the highest proportion of diabetes mortality among the working-age group. Past efforts to address this burden have been centered primarily on individual risk modifications evident by the NCDs Cluster Program at the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Regional Office. To achieve a progressive reduction, a comprehensive premature NCD reduction approach which includes a consideration of contexts within which premature NCD, such diabetes mortality arises is necessary. The aim was to examine the relationship between contextual factors and diabetes-related deaths as premature NCD mortality and to enable an improved contextualized evidence-based approach to premature NCD mortality reduction. Country-level data was retrieved for post SDG initiative years (2016-2019) from multiple publicly available data sources for 32 selected Africa UN Member States in the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) East and West Africa Region. Multiple linear regression was employed to examine the relationship between diabetes-related deaths in individuals 20-79 years and contextual factors identified within the SDG framework. Weighted data analysis showed that voice and accountability as a contextual factor explained approximately 47% variability in diabetes-related deaths across the selected Africa UN Member Sates in IDF East and West Region (n=32). Civil society engagement is vital to develop effective premature NCD mortality reduction policies, and strategies and stakeholders' accountabilities are necessary to ensure adherence to obligations.

Keywords: Africa; Sustainable development goals (SDGs); contextual factors; premature non-communicable disease mortality; voice and accountability.