Effects of Red Yeast (Sporidiobolus pararoseus) on Growth, Innate Immunity, Expression of Immune-related Genes and Disease Resistance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2022 Sep 2. doi: 10.1007/s12602-022-09984-8. Online ahead of print.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of red yeast (Sporidiobolus pararoseus) produced from crude glycerol, as a by-product of the biodiesel production process, on the growth, innate immunity, expression of immune-related gene, and resistance of Nile tilapia against challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae. Fish were fed diets supplied with different concentrations of S. pararoseus dried cells at 0.0 (control; T1), 5.0 (T2), 10.0 (T3), and 20.0 (T4) g kg-1 diets for 90 days. The results showed that final body weight, weight gain, and average daily gain were significantly higher in fish fed T3 and T4 compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Likewise, significant (p < 0.05) increases in total carotenoid content, liver superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and serum lysozyme and albumin were observed in Nile tilapia fed S. pararoseus, with the highest (p < 0.05) values displayed in fish fed the T4 diet. Moreover, up-regulation of IL-1β transcription in Nile tilapia spleen and liver was observed in fish feeding group T4. In a challenge test against S. agalactiae, the fish survival rate was significantly higher in fish fed red yeast compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The highest bactericidal activity found in the T4 group (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in hematology, blood chemical, malondialdehyde (MDA), body chemical composition, organosomatic indices, and myeloperoxidase (p > 0.05) in all treatments. The present results suggested that red yeast S. pararoseus (20.0 g kg-1) can be used as a potential supplementation on growth, immune response, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia.

Keywords: Feed additive; Feed supplementation; Immune response; Sporidiobolus pararoseus.