Exposure of aluminium to C6 glioma cells modulates molecular and functional neurotoxic markers

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2022 Dec;36(12):e23210. doi: 10.1002/jbt.23210. Epub 2022 Sep 3.


The risk of aluminium exposure to humans is very high as it may get into the human body through excessive dietary contaminants, inhalation of fine particulate matter, or through parenteral routes as a vaccine adjuvant and so forth. The increased level of aluminium in brain tissue has been shown to be associated with several neurodegenerative and neurotoxic adverse effects, including AD. However, the exact mechanism of aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is still unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the mechanism of neurotoxic and neurodegenerative effects through in vitro exposure of aluminium in rat glioma C6 cell line. The findings of our study have indicated that aluminium chloride exposure may lead to alteration in acetylcholine levels, increased oxidative imbalance and induction of molecular structural and functional markers of neuronal inflammation. This study also demonstrated that aluminium exposure may lead to the induction of caspase-3 along with apoptotic cell death and a significant increase in amyloid-beta and hyperphosphorylated tau levels in C6 cells. Thus, this study may provide a mechanistic understanding of the regulation of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative biomarkers due to aluminium exposure.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; aluminium chloride; amyloid beta; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; tau protein.

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum / toxicity
  • Aluminum Chloride / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Glioma* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes* / etiology
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes* / metabolism
  • Rats


  • Aluminum
  • Aluminum Chloride