Treatment Options for Pseudoaneurysm After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Systematic Review and Illustrative Case

World Neurosurg. 2022 Nov:167:131-146. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.08.124. Epub 2022 Sep 2.

Abstract

Background: The goal of this study was to systematically review the management and outcomes of patients who developed pseudoaneurysm (PA) after carotid endarterectomy (postendarterectomy PA [PEPA]).

Methods: Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from date of inception to June 2022. Studies were selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Simultaneously, a retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent neurosurgical evaluation of suspected PEPA at our institution.

Results: Of the 321 articles in the original literature search, 62 were selected. A total of 143 patients (93 men, 27 women; mean age, 70.7 years) diagnosed with PEPA were included. Mean time from carotid endarterectomy to PA diagnosis was 41.8 months. Primary repair data were available for 135 patients, including 19 with primary closures, 112 with patch or graft repairs, and 4 with eversion procedures. Fifty-five patients with PA (39%) presented with infection. Staphylococcal species were the most common causative organism. Of infected PAs, 89.1% were treated with open procedures. Overall complication rates of PAs treated via open, endovascular, and hybrid methods were 31%, 15.4%, and 0%, respectively. Open ligation (42.9%) and aneurysmectomy with grafting (36.4%) resulted in the highest rates of complications.

Conclusions: Despite higher complication rates after open repair strategies, use of these techniques remains a viable option in situations requiring removal of infected patches or evacuation of large extravascular collections. Endovascular treatment options are associated with low numbers of complications and can be considered for primary PEPA treatment when infection is not present.

Keywords: Carotid endarterectomy; Neurosurgery; Pseudoaneurysm; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aneurysm, False* / diagnostic imaging
  • Aneurysm, False* / etiology
  • Aneurysm, False* / surgery
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation* / methods
  • Carotid Stenosis* / surgery
  • Endarterectomy, Carotid* / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome