Characterizing pharmacogenetic programs using the consolidated framework for implementation research: A structured scoping review

Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Aug 18;9:945352. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2022.945352. eCollection 2022.


Several healthcare organizations have developed pre-emptive pharmacogenetic testing programs, where testing is undertaken prior to the prescription of a medicine. This review characterizes the barriers and facilitators which influenced the development of these programs. A bidirectional citation searching strategy identified relevant publications before a standardized data extraction approach was applied. Publications were grouped by program and data synthesis was undertaken using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). 104 publications were identified from 40 programs and 4 multi-center initiatives. 26 (66%) of the programs were based in the United States and 95% in high-income countries. The programs were heterogeneous in their design and scale. The Characteristics of the Intervention, Inner Setting, and Process domains were referenced by 92.5, 80, and 77.5% of programs, respectively. A positive institutional culture, leadership engagement, engaging stakeholders, and the use of clinical champions were frequently described as facilitators to implementation. Clinician self-efficacy, lack of stakeholder knowledge, and the cost of the intervention were commonly cited barriers. Despite variation between the programs, there were several similarities in approach which could be categorized via the CFIR. These form a resource for organizations planning the development of pharmacogenetic programs, highlighting key facilitators which can be leveraged to promote successful implementation.

Keywords: implementation science; medical informatics; pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenomics; precision medicine.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review