Consensus Recommendations for the Use of Automated Insulin Delivery Technologies in Clinical Practice

Endocr Rev. 2023 Mar 4;44(2):254-280. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnac022.


The significant and growing global prevalence of diabetes continues to challenge people with diabetes (PwD), healthcare providers, and payers. While maintaining near-normal glucose levels has been shown to prevent or delay the progression of the long-term complications of diabetes, a significant proportion of PwD are not attaining their glycemic goals. During the past 6 years, we have seen tremendous advances in automated insulin delivery (AID) technologies. Numerous randomized controlled trials and real-world studies have shown that the use of AID systems is safe and effective in helping PwD achieve their long-term glycemic goals while reducing hypoglycemia risk. Thus, AID systems have recently become an integral part of diabetes management. However, recommendations for using AID systems in clinical settings have been lacking. Such guided recommendations are critical for AID success and acceptance. All clinicians working with PwD need to become familiar with the available systems in order to eliminate disparities in diabetes quality of care. This report provides much-needed guidance for clinicians who are interested in utilizing AIDs and presents a comprehensive listing of the evidence payers should consider when determining eligibility criteria for AID insurance coverage.

Keywords: automated insulin delivery; closed-loop; consensus recommendations; type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Consensus
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin* / therapeutic use


  • Insulin
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Blood Glucose