Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration of physiological integrity, leading to impaired functional ability and ultimately increased susceptibility to death. It is a major risk factor for chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurological degeneration, and cancer. Therefore, the growing emphasis on "healthy aging" raises a series of important questions in life and social sciences. In recent years, there has been unprecedented progress in aging research, particularly the discovery that the rate of aging is at least partly controlled by evolutionarily conserved genetic pathways and biological processes. In an attempt to bring full-fledged understanding to both the aging process and age-associated diseases, we review the descriptive, conceptual, and interventive aspects of the landscape of aging composed of a number of layers at the cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organismal levels.
Keywords: aging; intervention; mechanism.
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