International Consensus Statement on Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2023 Jul;13(7):1061-1482. doi: 10.1002/alr.23079. Epub 2023 Mar 30.


Background: Evaluation and interpretation of the literature on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) allows for consolidation and determination of the key factors important for clinical management of the adult OSA patient. Toward this goal, an international collaborative of multidisciplinary experts in sleep apnea evaluation and treatment have produced the International Consensus statement on Obstructive Sleep Apnea (ICS:OSA).

Methods: Using previously defined methodology, focal topics in OSA were assigned as literature review (LR), evidence-based review (EBR), or evidence-based review with recommendations (EBR-R) formats. Each topic incorporated the available and relevant evidence which was summarized and graded on study quality. Each topic and section underwent iterative review and the ICS:OSA was created and reviewed by all authors for consensus.

Results: The ICS:OSA addresses OSA syndrome definitions, pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors for disease, screening methods, diagnostic testing types, multiple treatment modalities, and effects of OSA treatment on multiple OSA-associated comorbidities. Specific focus on outcomes with positive airway pressure (PAP) and surgical treatments were evaluated.

Conclusion: This review of the literature consolidates the available knowledge and identifies the limitations of the current evidence on OSA. This effort aims to create a resource for OSA evidence-based practice and identify future research needs. Knowledge gaps and research opportunities include improving the metrics of OSA disease, determining the optimal OSA screening paradigms, developing strategies for PAP adherence and longitudinal care, enhancing selection of PAP alternatives and surgery, understanding health risk outcomes, and translating evidence into individualized approaches to therapy.

Keywords: PAP adherence; atrial fibrillation; cardiovascular event; cerebrovascular disease; consensus; dementia; evidence-based medicine; home sleep apnea testing; hypertension; hypoglossal nerve stimulation; mortality; motor vehicle accidents; neurocognitive function; obstructive sleep apnea; outcomes; perioperative management; polysomnography; positive airway pressure; screening; sleep; sleep disordered breathing; sleep surgery; sleepiness; surgical outcomes; systematic review; treatment outcomes; uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure / methods
  • Humans
  • Polysomnography / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / diagnosis
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / epidemiology
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / therapy