Stabilized HIV-1 envelope immunization induces neutralizing antibodies to the CD4bs and protects macaques against mucosal infection

Sci Transl Med. 2022 Sep 7;14(661):eabo5598. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abo5598. Epub 2022 Sep 7.

Abstract

A successful HIV-1 vaccine will require induction of a polyclonal neutralizing antibody (nAb) response, yet vaccine-mediated induction of such a response in primates remains a challenge. We found that a stabilized HIV-1 CH505 envelope (Env) trimer formulated with a Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist induced potent HIV-1 polyclonal nAbs that correlated with protection from homologous simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. The serum dilution that neutralized 50% of virus replication (ID50 titer) required to protect 90% of macaques was 1:364 against the challenge virus grown in primary rhesus CD4+ T cells. Structural analyses of vaccine-induced nAbs demonstrated targeting of the Env CD4 binding site or the N156 glycan and the third variable loop base. Autologous nAb specificities similar to those elicited in macaques by vaccination were isolated from the human living with HIV from which the CH505 Env immunogen was derived. CH505 viral isolates were isolated that mutated the V1 to escape both the infection-induced and vaccine-induced antibodies. These results define the specificities of a vaccine-induced nAb response and the protective titers of HIV-1 vaccine-induced nAbs required to protect nonhuman primates from low-dose mucosal challenge by SHIVs bearing a primary transmitted/founder Env.

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Vaccines*
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Communicable Diseases*
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus*
  • Vaccination

Substances

  • AIDS Vaccines
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral