Efficacy and safety of wound infiltration modalities for postoperative pain management after cesarean section: a systematic review and network meta-analysis protocol

Syst Rev. 2022 Sep 7;11(1):194. doi: 10.1186/s13643-022-02068-2.


Background: Postoperative pain after a cesarean section has negative consequences for the mother during the postoperative period. Over the years, various postoperative pain management strategies have been used following cesarean section. Opioid-based analgesics and landmark approaches have negative side effects, while ultrasound-based regional analgesia necessitates resources and experience, but various wound infiltration adjuvants are innovative with few side effects and are simple to use. The efficacy and safety of each adjuvant, however, are unknown and require further investigation.

Objective: This network meta-analysis is intended to provide the most effective wound infiltration drugs for postoperative management after cesarean section.

Method: A comprehensive search will be conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, CINHAL, and LILACS without date and language restrictions. All randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of wound infiltration drugs for postoperative pain management after cesarean section will be included. Data extraction will be conducted independently by two authors. The quality of studies will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and the overall quality of the evidence will be determined by GRADEpro software.

Discussion: The rate of postoperative acute and chronic pain is very high which has a huge impact on the mother, family, healthcare practitioners, and healthcare delivery. It is a basic human right to give every patient with postoperative pain treatment that is realistic in terms of resources, technique, cost, and adverse event profile.

Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42021268774.

Keywords: Cesarean section; Postoperative pain; Wound infiltration.

MeSH terms

  • Analgesia*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use
  • Cesarean Section* / adverse effects
  • Cesarean Section* / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Network Meta-Analysis
  • Pain Management / methods
  • Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic


  • Analgesics, Opioid