Although innovative targeted therapies have positively revolutionized psoriasis treatment shifting treatment goals to complete or almost complete skin clearance, primary or secondary lack of efficacy is still possible. Hence, identifying robust biomarkers that reflect the various clinical psoriasis phenotypes would allow stratify patients in subgroups or endotypes, and tailor treatments according to the characteristics of each individual (precision medicine). To sum up the current progress in personalized medicine for psoriasis, we performed a review on the available evidence on biomarkers predictive of response to psoriasis treatments, with focus on phototherapy and systemic agents. Relevant literature published in English was searched for using the following databases from the last five years up to March 20, 2022: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, EBSCO, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane library. Currently, more evidence exists towards biologicals, as justified by the huge health care costs as compared to phototherapy or conventional systemic drugs. Among them, most of the studies focused on anti-TNF and IL12/23, with still few on IL17 (mainly secukinumab). The most discussed biomarker gene is the HLA-C*02:06 status that has been shown to be associated with psoriasis, and also differential response to biologicals. Although its positivity is associated with great response to MTX, debatable results were retrieved concerning both anti-TNF and IL12/23 while it seems not to affect secukinumab response. Personalized treatment in psoriasis would provide excellent outcome minimizing the risk of side effects. To date, although several candidates were proposed and assessed, the scarcity and heterogeneity of the results do not allow the identification of the gold-standard biomarker per each treatment. Anyway, the creation of a more comprehensive panel would be more reliable for the treatment decision process.
Keywords: DMF; MTX; SM; acitretin; apremilast; biologicals; biomarkers; ciclosporin; conventional systemic treatments; dimethyl fumarate; methotrexate; pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenomics; phototherapy; precision medicine; small molecules; stratification medicine.
© 2022 Camela et al.