Genotype-phenotype Correlates in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathies

Curr Cardiol Rep. 2022 Nov;24(11):1557-1565. doi: 10.1007/s11886-022-01777-3. Epub 2022 Sep 8.


Purpose of the review: The definition of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) has expanded beyond desmosomal arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) to include other genetic cardiomyopathies with a significant arrhythmia burden. Emerging data on genotype-phenotype correlations has led recent consensus guidelines to urge genetic testing as a critical component of not only diagnosis but also management of ACM.

Recent findings: Plakophilin-2 (PKP2) ARVC/ACM is most likely to meet ARVC Task Force Criteria with right sided involvement and ventricular arrhythmias, while desmoplakin (DSP) ACM may have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and has a subepicardial LV scar pattern. Extra-desmosomal ACM including ACM associated with transmembrane protein 43 and phospholamban variants may have characteristic ECG patterns and biventricular cardiomyopathy. Lamin A/C and SCN5A cardiomyopathy often have heart block on ECG with DCM, but are distinct from DCM in that they have significantly elevated arrhythmic risk. Newer genes, especially filamin-C (FLNC) also may have distinct imaging scar patterns, arrhythmia risk, and risk predictors. Recognition of these key differences have implications for clinical management and reinforce the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis and the emerging opportunities for genotype-specific management of ACM patients.

Keywords: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; Genotype; Risk stratification.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiomyopathies* / diagnosis
  • Cardiomyopathies* / genetics
  • Humans