Substrate Characterization and Outcomes of Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients With Mitral Annular Disjunction

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2022 Sep;15(9):e011088. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.122.011088. Epub 2022 Sep 8.


Background: Mitral annular disjunction (MAD) has recently been recognized as an arrhythmogenic entity. Data on the electrophysiological substrate as well as the outcomes of catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with MAD is limited.

Methods: Forty patients with MAD (mean age 47±15 years; 70% female) underwent catheter ablation for ventricular arrhythmias. Detailed clinical, electrocardiographic, cardiac imaging, and procedural data were collected. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients who had substrate modification in the MAD area and those who did not.

Results: Twenty-three (57.5%) patients had ablation for premature ventricular contractions, 10 (25%) patients for sustained ventricular tachycardia, and 7 (17.5%) patients for premature ventricular contraction-triggered ventricular fibrillation. Mean end-systolic MAD length was 10.58±3.49 mm on transthoracic echocardiography. Seventeen (42.5%) patients had preprocedural cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and 5 (29%) patients had late gadolinium enhancement. Among the 18 (45%) patients who had abnormal local electrograms (low voltage, long-duration, fractionated, isolated mid-diastolic potentials) during electroanatomical mapping, 10 (25%) patients had abnormal electrograms in the anterolateral mitral annulus and/or MAD area. Substrate modification was performed in 10 (25%) patients. Catheter ablation was acutely successful in 36 (90%) patients (elimination of premature ventricular contraction or noninducibility of ventricular tachycardia). After a median follow-up duration of 54.08 (interquartile range, 10.67-89.79) months, premature ventricular contraction burden decreased from a median of 9.75% (interquartile range, 3.25-14) before the ablation to a median of 4% (interquartile range, 1-7.75) after the ablation (P=0.03 [95% CI, 0.055-6.5]). Eight (20.5%) patients had repeat ablation for ventricular arrhythmias. Substrate modification of the MAD was associated with a trend toward lower rates of repeat ablation (0% versus 26.7%; P=0.16).

Conclusions: Patients with MAD have a complex arrhythmogenic substrate, and catheter ablation is effective in reducing recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. Substrate mapping and ablation may be considered in these patients.

Keywords: catheter ablation; defibrillator; gadolinium; mitral valve; tachycardia.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Catheter Ablation* / adverse effects
  • Catheter Ablation* / methods
  • Contrast Media
  • Female
  • Gadolinium
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular* / diagnosis
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular* / etiology
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular* / surgery
  • Ventricular Premature Complexes* / diagnosis
  • Ventricular Premature Complexes* / surgery


  • Contrast Media
  • Gadolinium