Human TKTL1 implies greater neurogenesis in frontal neocortex of modern humans than Neanderthals

Science. 2022 Sep 9;377(6611):eabl6422. doi: 10.1126/science.abl6422. Epub 2022 Sep 9.


Neanderthal brains were similar in size to those of modern humans. We sought to investigate potential differences in neurogenesis during neocortex development. Modern human transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) differs from Neanderthal TKTL1 by a lysine-to-arginine amino acid substitution. Using overexpression in developing mouse and ferret neocortex, knockout in fetal human neocortical tissue, and genome-edited cerebral organoids, we found that the modern human variant, hTKTL1, but not the Neanderthal variant, increases the abundance of basal radial glia (bRG) but not that of intermediate progenitors (bIPs). bRG generate more neocortical neurons than bIPs. The hTKTL1 effect requires the pentose phosphate pathway and fatty acid synthesis. Inhibition of these metabolic pathways reduces bRG abundance in fetal human neocortical tissue. Our data suggest that neocortical neurogenesis in modern humans differs from that in Neanderthals.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ependymoglial Cells / cytology
  • Ferrets
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Neanderthals* / embryology
  • Neanderthals* / genetics
  • Neocortex* / embryology
  • Neurogenesis* / genetics
  • Neurogenesis* / physiology
  • Transketolase* / genetics
  • Transketolase* / metabolism


  • TKTL1 protein, human
  • Transketolase