Background and objectives: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) occurs due to the mutation in the ABCD1-gene. Our study was to correlate the clinical, radiological, and biochemical features in a cohort of X-ALD patients.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 48 (M: F: 47:1) biochemically confirmed cases of X-ALD, classified them as cerebral ALD (childhood, adolescent, and adult), adrenomyeloneuropathy, Addisonian only. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the radiological patterns was classified based on Loes classification.
Results: The various clinical phenotypes were childhood cerebral X-ALD (58.3%), adolescent cerebral X-ALD (14.6%), adult-cerebral X-ALD (20.8%), Addisonian variant (4.2%), and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) (2.1%). The imaging features were posterior white matter (Pattern-1) observed in 33 (68.75%) patients, cerebellar white matter (Pattern-4) noted in 5 subjects, anterior white matter (Pattern-2) observed in 3 patients, combined parieto-occipital and frontal white matter (Pattern-5) observed in 3 patients, isolated projection fiber (Pattern-3) observed in 1 patient. Rare features of the involvement of optic tract, anterior and lateral columns of cervicodorsal cord, bilateral central tegmental tracts, basal ganglia, and tigroid appearance were observed.
Interpretation: This is a comprehensive clinical, biochemical, and imaging analysis with follow-up information of one of the largest series of X-ALD patients. The knowledge regarding the clinical features, typical and atypical imaging patterns is of vital importance for early diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: Lysophosphatidylcholines; VLCFA; X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy; very-long-chain fatty acids.