Effect of Genotype and Environment on Food-Related Traits of Organic Winter Naked Barleys

Foods. 2022 Aug 31;11(17):2642. doi: 10.3390/foods11172642.


This study aimed to understand how genetics and environment influence organic winter naked barley composition and functionality, and to identify traits that might effectively categorize basic physicochemical functionality of food barley. Across three years, two locations, and 15 genotypes, genotype significantly influenced all 10 food-related traits and was the dominant influence for three. Location significantly influenced eight traits and was dominant for three. Year significantly influenced all traits but was dominant only for one. Of the interactions location * year was the most influential and was the dominant effect for two traits. For all interaction terms where genotype was a component, the effect sizes were either small or non-significant suggesting that even with low leverage traits there is the potential for genetic gain by observing trait rankings across environments. Principal component analysis identified six traits that could serve to categorize basic physicochemical functionality of food barley. These were grain protein content, beta-glucan content, flour-water batter flow, water solvent retention capacity, time to peak viscosity of cooked flour, and hardness of cooked intact grains.

Keywords: batter flow; beta-glucan; environment; food; genotype; genotype x environment; naked barley; organic; protein; starch; water absorption.