Molecular Insights in Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Systematic Review

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 27;23(17):9728. doi: 10.3390/ijms23179728.


Uterine fibroids (UFs) are the most common benign tumors of female genital diseases, unlike uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS), a rare and aggressive uterine cancer. This narrative review aims to discuss the biology and diagnosis of LMS and, at the same time, their differential diagnosis, in order to distinguish the biological and molecular origins. The authors performed a Medline and PubMed search for the years 1990-2022 using a combination of keywords on the topics to highlight the many genes and proteins involved in the pathogenesis of LMS. The mutation of these genes, in addition to the altered expression and functions of their enzymes, are potentially biomarkers of uterine LMS. Thus, the use of this molecular and protein information could favor differential diagnosis and personalized therapy based on the molecular characteristics of LMS tissue, leading to timely diagnoses and potential better outcomes for patients.

Keywords: differential diagnosis; gene; leiomyosarcoma; molecular; omics; uterine fibroid.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma* / diagnosis
  • Leiomyoma* / genetics
  • Leiomyoma* / pathology
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / diagnosis
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / genetics
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / pathology
  • Pelvic Neoplasms*
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Uterus / pathology

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.