Development of a Methodology for the Quality Management of Duplex Stainless Steels

Materials (Basel). 2022 Aug 31;15(17):6008. doi: 10.3390/ma15176008.


The use of traditional materials leads to failures and breakdowns of expensive equipment, so advanced materials are needed that can provide reliable and durable solutions. The ability to control the quality of duplex stainless steels (DSSs) can greatly help with the development of new compositions or choosing existing DSSs. In this case, it is necessary to consider the final consumer properties-corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, which depend on the phase composition, contamination with non-metallic inclusions (NMIs), and the presence of undesirable secondary phases. In this research, specimens of cast DSSs of different grades, produced at laboratory and industrial scales, were studied. A technique for quantifying the microstructure of DSSs was developed. A thermodynamic database was chosen that adequately describes the processes of phase formation in DSSs. The effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and corrosion properties of cast DSSs were studied. The effects of the structural state on the changes in consumer properties of the final product are shown. It is shown that using various deoxidation technologies, it is possible to obtain both NMIs that are dangerous in terms of corrosive activity and ones that are relatively safe.

Keywords: austenite; duplex stainless steels; etching; modelling; non-metallic inclusions; quality control; quantification; thermodynamic database; δ-ferrite; σ-phase.