Enabling Blockchain Services for IoE with Zk-Rollups

Sensors (Basel). 2022 Aug 29;22(17):6493. doi: 10.3390/s22176493.


The Internet of Things includes all connected objects from small embedded systems with low computational power and storage capacities to efficient ones, as well as moving objects like drones and autonomous vehicles. The concept of Internet of Everything expands upon this idea by adding people, data and processing. The adoption of such systems is exploding and becoming ever more significant, bringing with it questions related to the security and the privacy of these objects. A natural solution to data integrity, confidentiality and single point of failure vulnerability is the use of blockchains. Blockchains can be used as an immutable data layer for storing information, avoiding single point of failure vulnerability via decentralization and providing strong security and cryptographic tools for IoE. However, the adoption of blockchain technology in such heterogeneous systems containing light devices presents several challenges and practical issues that need to be overcome. Indeed, most of the solutions proposed to adapt blockchains to devices with low resources confront difficulty in maintaining decentralization or security. The most interesting are probably the Layer 2 solutions, which build offchain systems strongly connected to the blockchain. Among these, zk-rollup is a promising new generation of Layer 2/off-chain schemes that can remove the last obstacles to blockchain adoption in IoT, or more generally, in IoE. By increasing the scalability and enabling rule customization while preserving the same security as the Layer 1 blockchain, zk-rollups overcome restrictions on the use of blockchains for IoE. Despite their promises illustrated by recent systems proposed by startups and private companies, very few scientific publications explaining or applying this barely-known technology have been published, especially for non-financial systems. In this context, the objective of our paper is to fill this gap for IoE systems in two steps. We first propose a synthetic review of recent proposals to improve scalability including onchain (consensus, blockchain organization, …) and offchain (sidechain, rollups) solutions and we demonstrate that zk-rollups are the most promising ones. In a second step, we focus on IoE by describing several interesting features (scalability, dynamicity, data management, …) that are illustrated with various general IoE use cases.

Keywords: IoE; IoT; Zero-Knowledge; blockchain; rollup; scalability; zk-rollup.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blockchain*
  • Computer Security
  • Confidentiality
  • Data Management
  • Humans
  • Privacy

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.