Influences of Airway Obstruction Caused by Adenoid Hypertrophy on Growth and Development of Craniomaxillofacial Structure and Respiratory Function in Children

Comput Math Methods Med. 2022 Aug 30:2022:5096406. doi: 10.1155/2022/5096406. eCollection 2022.


Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is a common disease in otorhinolaryngology. Children with chronic snoring and hypoxia are susceptible to long-term nasal obstruction, while long-term open-mouth breathing may cause craniofacial bone development disorders and dull facial expressions, the so-called adenoid face. The purpose of this work is to analyze the influence of AH-induced airway obstruction (AO) on the growth and development of craniomaxillofacial structure and respiratory function (RF) in children. The clinical data of 56 AH children (observation group) and 42 healthy children with physical examination (control group) who visited the Hebei Eye Hospital during the same period were retrospectively analyzed. All children received acoustic rhinometry and X-ray cephalometric measurements. The upper airway structure, sleep disorder score, and A/N value of nasopharyngeal lateral X-ray images were compared between cases and controls. For AH children, sleep tests were also performed to assess their RF. X-ray cephalometric measurements of facial morphology showed obvious vertical growth, mandibular retrognathia, and enlarged mandibular angle in AH children. AH mainly affects the size of the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway. AH children presented with higher nasal airway resistance (5.11 ± 1.95 cmH2O/L min) and lower nasopharyngeal volume (NPV) (16.86 ± 3.93 cm3) than controls. Of the AH children, 45 had abnormal RF, including 4 with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The A/N value of nasopharyngeal lateral X-ray images was significantly higher in AH children than in controls. Besides, worse sleep quality was found in AH children. The above differences were all of statistical significance. The above indicates that AH can affect the size of the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway, change children's respiratory mode and RF, increase nasal resistance, and decrease NPV, resulting in upper respiratory tract stenosis, as well as craniomaxillofacial and oral malformations, which affects children's normal growth and development.

Publication types

  • Retracted Publication

MeSH terms

  • Adenoids* / diagnostic imaging
  • Airway Obstruction* / diagnostic imaging
  • Airway Obstruction* / etiology
  • Child
  • Growth and Development
  • Humans
  • Hypertrophy
  • Retrospective Studies