Outcomes of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis due to Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia After the Acute Phase

Stroke. 2022 Oct;53(10):3206-3210. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.122.039575. Epub 2022 Sep 9.


Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a severe condition, with high in-hospital mortality rates. Here, we report clinical outcomes of patients with CVT-VITT after SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) vaccination who survived initial hospitalization.

Methods: We used data from an international registry of patients who developed CVT within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, collected until February 10, 2022. VITT diagnosis was classified based on the Pavord criteria. Outcomes were mortality, functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), VITT relapse, new thrombosis, and bleeding events (all after discharge from initial hospitalization).

Results: Of 107 CVT-VITT cases, 43 (40%) died during initial hospitalization. Of the remaining 64 patients, follow-up data were available for 60 (94%) patients (37 definite VITT, 9 probable VITT, and 14 possible VITT). Median age was 40 years and 45/60 (75%) patients were women. Median follow-up time was 150 days (interquartile range, 94-194). Two patients died during follow-up (3% [95% CI, 1%-11%). Functional independence was achieved by 53/60 (88% [95% CI, 78%-94%]) patients. No new venous or arterial thrombotic events were reported. One patient developed a major bleeding during follow-up (fatal intracerebral bleed).

Conclusions: In contrast to the high mortality of CVT-VITT in the acute phase, mortality among patients who survived the initial hospitalization was low, new thrombotic events did not occur, and bleeding events were rare. Approximately 9 out of 10 CVT-VITT patients who survived the acute phase were functionally independent at follow-up.

Keywords: hospitalization; intracranial thrombosis; mortality; thrombocytopenia; vaccination; venous thrombosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • COVID-19 Vaccines* / adverse effects
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Thrombosis* / diagnosis
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Thrombocytopenia*
  • Thrombosis*
  • Vaccines*
  • Venous Thrombosis*


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Vaccines